The Geography of West Africa: Geo Spatial Inquiries through a Historical Lens. Boston University, African Studies Center.
Refining gold with glass – an early Islamic technology at Tadmekka, Mali. Journal of Archaeological Science. Volume 49, September 2014, Pages 33-41 (Accessed 7/16/2020).
Jenne-Jenno: An Ancient African City (McIntosh & McIntosh)
Reconceptualizing Early Ghana by S. K. McIntosh Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines, Vol. 42, No. 2/3/
Why study African cities? A Lecture for teachers by Dr. Rod McIntosh
Caravans of Gold, Fragments in Time. Smithsonian National Museum of African Art. Accessed 5/25/2020. Teachers’ Guide
Podcast: Medieval Africa at the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto: a 22 minute podcast on the Caravans of Gold exhibit of the Block Museum, currently in Toronto.
Sahel : Art and Empires on the Shores of the Sahara. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accessed 5/25/2020.
Za mani Project, gallery of interactive 3D heritage sites throughout Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. It includes the Jenne mosque, and the Timbuktu Djenguereber mosque
The Met Museums’ Heilbrunn interactive Timeline of Art History chronology: a useful interactive source that showcases some artifacts in the Saharan trade.
Trans Saharan Gold Trade 7th to 14th century (Met Museum)
History and Literature
Ancient History Encyclopedia (includes several articles on Medieval Sudanic states)
- The Gold Trade of Ancient and Medieval West Africa
- Mansa Musa
- Sundiata Keita
- The Spread of Islam in Ancient Africa
- Camel Caravans of the Ancient Sahara
Faces Magazine. Journey to Mali. March 2020. ( Online annual subscription to Faces $9..99)
Mali: An Ancient Empire. Christine Graf
White Gold: The Sahara Salt Trade. Jane Schere
The Great Mosque of Djenne. Gail Skroback Hennessey
The Brave Librarians of Timbuktu. Barbara Tuttle
Mali’s Music: A Universal Language. Marcia Amidon Lusted.
The Richest Man Who Ever Lived. Marcia Amidon Lusted
Mali-inspired Terracotta Sculptures. Brenda Breuls
History of Africa. Exploring Africa. Michigan State University. Accessed 7/29/2020.
Mansa Musa. Stanford History Education Group. Accessed 7/29/2020.
Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu from The Description of Africa (1526). Washington State University.
Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354. Fordham University.
Boston University, African Studies Center. Accessed 5/25/2020
- Kingdoms of Ancient and Medieval Mali.
- Resources for Teachers
- Sundiata : An Epic of Old Mali Reading Guide.
- The Geography of West Africa: GeoInquiries through a historical lens (Google Earth presentation)
South African History Online. Accessed 5/25/2020.
- The Empire of Mali (1230-1600).
- Empires of West Africa : Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. by David Conrad.
- Grade 7 – Term 1: Kingdom of Mali and the City of Timbuktu in the 14th Century.
- Summary: The KingdomEmpires Of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali, And Songhay of Mali and the City of Timbuktu in the 14th Century
UC Berkeley. Accessed 5/25/2020.