Teaching Resources   Medieval Ghana, Mali and Songhai

Online Resources



The Geography of West Africa: Geo Spatial Inquiries through a Historical Lens. Boston University, African Studies Center.


Refining gold with glass – an early Islamic technology at Tadmekka, Mali. Journal of Archaeological Science. Volume 49, September 2014, Pages 33-41 (Accessed 7/16/2020).

Jenne-Jenno: An Ancient African City (McIntosh & McIntosh)

Reconceptualizing Early Ghana  by S. K. McIntosh Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines, Vol. 42, No. 2/3/

Why study African cities? A Lecture for teachers by Dr. Rod McIntosh 


Caravans of Gold, Fragments in Time. Smithsonian National Museum of African Art. Accessed 5/25/2020. Teachers’ Guide

Podcast: Medieval Africa at the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto: a 22 minute podcast on the Caravans of Gold exhibit of the Block Museum, currently in Toronto.

Sahel : Art and Empires on the Shores of the Sahara. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accessed 5/25/2020.

Za mani Project, gallery of interactive 3D heritage sites throughout Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. It includes the Jenne mosque, and  the Timbuktu Djenguereber mosque

The Met Museums’ Heilbrunn interactive Timeline of Art History chronology: a useful interactive source that showcases some artifacts in the Saharan trade. 

Trans Saharan Gold Trade 7th to 14th century (Met Museum)

History and Literature

Ancient History Encyclopedia  (includes several articles on Medieval Sudanic states)

Faces Magazine. Journey to Mali. March 2020. ( Online annual subscription to Faces $9..99)
Mali: An Ancient Empire. Christine Graf
White Gold: The Sahara Salt Trade. Jane Schere
The Great Mosque of Djenne. Gail Skroback Hennessey
The Brave Librarians of Timbuktu. Barbara Tuttle
Mali’s Music: A Universal Language. Marcia Amidon Lusted.
The Richest Man Who Ever Lived. Marcia Amidon Lusted
Mali-inspired Terracotta Sculptures. Brenda Breuls

History of Africa. Exploring Africa. Michigan State University. Accessed 7/29/2020.

Mansa Musa. Stanford History Education Group. Accessed 7/29/2020.

Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu from The Description of Africa (1526). Washington State University. 

Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354. Fordham University. 

Accessed 5/25/2020.

Boston University, African Studies Center. Accessed 5/25/2020

South African History Online. Accessed 5/25/2020.

UC Berkeley. Accessed 5/25/2020.